IRMA '98
(Dec 20, 1998)

a. Time : 2 Hrs., Total Questions 200

b. Negative Marking : 25%


Section No. Name No of Questions
1 EU 40
2 MA 50
3 AR 50
4 GK 60

d. No sectional time limit : Candidate was allowed to switch between sections

e. No rough sheet was provided / no calculators allowed.

Section 1. English Usage (EU)      40 questions

Structure :

Q. 1-5 - Find out the part of the sentence which is grammatically incorrect.
Q. 6-15 - Fill in the blanks[ most appropriate word).
Q.16-25 - Fill in the most appropriate word in the blanks (one paragraph). Also called "Cloze Test."
Q.26-30 - Para-formation of sentences (four jumbled).
Q.31-40-RC [One passage].

Analysis of EU section :

[1-5] Sample Q.
This hospital / is fully equipped with / all surgical instruments / all the doctors.

Overall questions were easy and required basic knowledge of the language.

6-15 - This was the part where there were lot of ONE LINERS - It was comparatively tough section, where VOCABULARY was a factor.

16-25 - One paragraph on "bureaucracy" was there. It was comparatively tough section. This required a resonable good understanding of language. You were supposed to read the whole paragraph first and only then attempt the questions.

26-30 - Para-formation was very easy. For more hints on tricks of solving such questions, visit our CAT'98 analysis page.

Sample Question.

A. He always comes first.
B. He is very brilliant.
C. Sohan and Mohan are of the same school.
D. Even if he doesn't get first rank, he doesn't get dismayed.

Solution. Quite clearly there is a key connection between B and A i.e. BA is a key. Very easy.

31-40 - RC - There was one passage which was on "Humanity and Co-operation." It was of less than half page - very easy, questions were direct - like:

1.Why small creatures are better than human beings?

2.What is the cause of Man's greed?

3.What does the term "ASTIR OF THE COUNTRY" - - - -

4.What does the term "SOUL" mean ?

(Very easy, could have been done very quickly. Direct answers. No open-ended questions)

Overall analysis : EU was very conventional and should have been done in 18-20 minutes.

Section 2. Quantitative Ability (Maths + DS + DI)      50 questions

35 questions (8 DS question inclusive)

Q.15x + 158.62 = 1658.23. What is x = ? ........4 options.

3 questions of this type appeared.

Solution. Directly based on basic numbers' concepts.

Q.1/3 of 3/5 of 1/7 is a number = d. The number is :
Ans. : Direct - 280.

Q.Square of a number is 64 times the square root of the number. The number is :

  (1)   24    (2)  36    (3)  16    (4)  12

Ans. : 16

Q.28 x 15 = 20 x 21 = 12 x 35 = 32 x 18 One is unequal from the others. Which one?
Ans. : (4)th pair.

Q.A rectangular park is given with a particular length to breadth ratio. A path is made all around the rectangle whose area is given. The total area is also given. Find the length of the park.

Solution. A typical Mensuration problem. Let length and breadth of park be L and B. Let width of path = W. => Area of park = LB. => Area of path = (L+2W) x (B+2W) - LB etc.

Q.The ratio of ages of a and B is 2 : 3. After 4 years, their ages are in ratio 3:4. Find their present ages.

Solution. LEt present ages be 2X and 3X. => (2X + 4) / (3X + 4) = 3/4 => X = 4 => Present ages are 8 and 12 yrs resp. Direct and easy.

Q. A and B complete a work in 10 days. B and C complete same work in 12 days. C and A complete same work in 15 days. How long will it take them to complete the work altogether ?

Solution. Another typical Work & Time problem.

(A + B) in one day = 1/10
(B + C) in one day = 1/12
(C + A) in one day = 1/15

Add all three equation to get : 2 (A + B + C) = 15/60 in one day.
=> (A + B + C) = 15/120 = 1/8 in one day. Hence total in 8 days.

Q.Area of a plot is 64 m If the length is twice the breadth, find the length.

Solution. LB = 64 => L x L/2 = 64 => L ca be found.

Q.A force X is 35 g wt and a force B is 30 g wt. Angle between them is 30. What is the resultant force ?

Solution. Directly by the Parallelogram Law of forces, we get the answer as P + Q + 2 PQ Cos 30 where P and Q are the two forces involved.

Q.A man is 6 feet tall. His angle of elevation to a tower is 30. When he moves 20m nearer to the tower, angle becomes 45. Find height of tower.

Solution. Direct - Tan 30 = H / X, Tan 45 = H / (X - 20) Solve to get X. Then get H. Then add 6 feet to it to get the answer. Note that here H + 6 = Height of tower, X = original distance between the base of tower and the man.

Q.A set of 5 TOUGH questions, in which as per the trend given in the first series, the next series has to be completed.
For example,

	12, 30, 76, 148, 292.
                19, 35, 67, 131,  ? 

So in the 1st series, the difference between 2 consecutive numbers is getting doubled, i.e., 18, 36, 72, 144. Hence answer is 259.

& so on.

Could have been done by those having the required exposure.

Q. A 13 m rod weights 17.13 kg. What will be the weight of 10 cm of this rod?

Solution. Very simple! Mass = Density x Volume => Required mass will be linearly varying as the volume. => M1 / M2 = V1 / V2 Now just put the values for these figures and get the answers.
For example : M1 = 17.13 kg, M2 = X, V1 = volume of a cylinder 13 m long, V2 = Volume of the cylinder 10 cm long etc. etc. You'll never need the radius of the rod as that is getting cancelled out.

Q.10 men earn Rs. 32 after working for 25 hours. So, how many men working for 16 hours will earn Rs. 28. (figures not exact in question).

Solution. Directly by Work Equivalence method : 32 = 10 x 25, 28 = M x 16 etc. Divide and get the desired result.

DS Type

Q. A train is crossing a platform, find out its length?
1.Train crosses a pole in 6 sec.
2.Length of station is 200 m.
3.Time taken for two trains moving in opposite directions to cross each other is given.
4.Length of the second (i.e., opposite direction) train is also given.

Solution. Directly based on Time/Speed theory.

Overall Analysis - Relatively simple, but towards the end, questions with longer calculations and time consuming.

DI (a simple and easy set of 5 questions)

Q.1-5 Very easy

2 companies A and B and their production from 1991 to 1997 is given.

Q.B's production is more than A's production in how many years?
Q.Average production of A in all the 8 years ?
Q.Maximum difference in production of A is for which two years?
Q.% growth of B from 92 to 94 is = ?
Q.A's score for Maths and Science is what % of D's history marks.

Q.6 - 10 Slightly typical, Table was given.

		Phy. 	Chem. 	Maths	Sc. 	Hindi
Maximum 	(100) 	(200) 	(300) 	(100) 	(100)

A		60%	40%
B			50%
C			40%	30%
D			20%
E				and so on .........

% of marks obtained ........ i.e., for 6 persons A to F, % marks obtained in various subjects is given. The whole table was given.

Q.Find 2 persons who scored more than 60% (aggregate).
Q.Who scored the highest average marks?
Q.Find ratio of A's history marks to C's science marks.

Q.11-15 (Easy set)

Q.Maximum ratio of income to expenditure was for which year?
Q.Difference between total expenditure and total income for all years?
Q.Income for 91 and 92 is what percentage of expenditure of 91?
Q.Ratio of income in 1991 to expenditure in 1993 is ?

Section 3. AR - Analytical Reasoning      50 questions

Q.1-5 : A paragraph followed by 2 statements.
Find if
1.Statement I is strong.
2.Statement II is strong.
3.Either is strong.
4.Neither is strong.

Example 1. Polythene bags should be banned.

Statement I - No, Consumers will face problems.
Statement II - No, Plastic industry will get unemployed.

Example 2. Should insurance be privatised?

Statement I - No, because pvt section is inefficient.
Statement II - Yes, because this is the trend in developing countries.

SOLUTIONS : These could be done by using a lot of common sense.

(Please note that we may not have been able to reproduce the whole thing exactly. This is because of the inherent limitations of the memory retention procedure).

Q.6-10 : Based on syllogisms.

Example 1.
All tubes are cars. All cars are men. Some men are books.

Then 5 alternatives. Choose which is most appropriate. Here the Venn diagram method is the most appropriate.

Q.11 to 15 :

A paragraph followed by 2 sentences. Find whether :

1.I is implicit
2.II is implicit
3.Both are implicit
4.Neither is implicit

Q.16 to 20. was a paragraph on pesticides. Some statements were given.
Mark (1) if it is definitely true.
Mark (2) if it is probably true.
Mark (3) if it is probably false.
Mark (4) if it is definitely false.
Mark (5) data insufficient.

This set required a good Reading Comprehension skill set.

Q. 21 to 25. There is a machine in which if you put some words, their sequence gets transformed step by step. For example : Chi, Koo, Til, Bat, Nic, Sil.

Step I - The nos. on odd positions change to even positions.
Step II - The last 3 words become the first three.

and so on 6 steps were given followed by five questions like :

Q.A sentence is given. In 6 steps, what will be the sequence if it is put in the machine ?
Q.A statement of 4th step is given. What was the initial statement?
....and so on.

Solution methodology. Start from the first step, apply the rules one by one, and be careful not to overlook or skip any intermediate step. The only way to solve this question is the mechanical method. Lots of such questions are covered in the regular PT study material.

Q.26 to 31 : There is an institute that wants to recruit some people. The conditions are :
1.80% aggregate in HSC and SSC both.
2.He should have got rank 1 to 3 in science modelling exhibition.
3.If he is a member of science club, he will be admitted.
4.He should be more than 17 years but less than 21 years as on wa-wa (whatever-it-was!)

These and the conditions given, inferences have to be drawn.

Solution. Now this is a pretty mechanical elimination problem. So no hassles here at least.

Q.32 to 35 :
A cuboid 5 x 3 x 3 is painted on all sides. It is then cut into 1 x 1 x 1 cubes.
The cuboid was as follows :

1.One side 5 x 3 - white colour
2.One side 5 x 3 - red colour
3.One side 3 x 3 - green colour.

Q.How many cubes are left unpainted?
Q.How many cubes are totally painted?
Q.How many cubes with 3 sides painted?

Solutions. Directly by mental visualisation you can see that 3, None, and 8 are the respective answers. This is entirely by mental calculations.

Q.36 to 38 :
Five persons have to leave from a particular place. There are 2 females and 3 males. The females have to leave the first and the male has to leave in the end. Praveen is to leave after Chandra, Ramesh has to leave before a female, etc. These conditions have been given. We have to find the order of leaving.

Solution. A typical tabular elimination type question.

Q.39 to 42 : 6 persons have to be arranged in the order of their heights and ages. Person with
Ht :Maximum height is to be last.Minimum height is to be first.
Age:Maximum age person is to be first. Minimum age person is to be last.
P is 4th as per height.

as per height and weight etc. conditions are given.

Q.Who is the tallest?
Q.Who is the oldest?
Q.Who is the youngest?
Q.Who is the shortest?

Solution. Prepare a table and get started. That is the best way to do this problem.

Q.43 to 45 : All 26 alphabets are written in a line in a jumble way.

Q.Which letter is 16th from right and then 8th to its right?
Q.Which letter is 13th from the right and then 8th to its left?
Q.Take the first 5 letters which are on the odd positions from the right and try making a meaningful word.

If you can make 2 words, mark option (1).
If you can make 1 word, mark option (2).
If you can make 0 word, mark option (3).
If you can make 3 words, mark option (4).

Q.46 to 50 -
A last set of 5 questions based on division of a property of a man to his wife and 4 children and to find out their inheritance in rupees.

Overall Analysis : A demanding section, requiring 100% presence of mind coupled with prior practice. Overall we at PT feel that skills like Logical Reasoning etc. are to a great extent innate in a student and can be honed to some extent.

Section 4. GA - General Awareness      60 questions

It was a very conventional GA section of IRMA. Emphasis was on "Rural Economy, Social Aspects, Development, Constitution" etc. Persons who are regular readers, will do well.

Q.Main objective of IRDP was :.....

Q.% of rural population in 1990 was : ..... 4 options

Q.Objective of NEP (new economic policy) announced by Mr. Vajpai was :

Q.73rd Constitutional amendment is related to :

Q.Where is the headquarter of the Bank of Rural Development..?

Q.Book on "Wealth and Prosperity" is written by : ...

Q.Prof. Amartya Sen has been awarded Nobel Prize in Economics for which field ?:::

Q.Which state has seen maximum cases of "Girl Infanticide"..?

Q."Narmada Bachao Abhiyan" was :...

Q.Which country provides lowest subsidy to agriculture?...

Q.What is not a role of Planning Commission?

Q.What is not correct ? [questions were about Gen Pinochet of Chile]

Q.Name given to Revolution in Fishing ..(Blue Revolution).

Q.Which state has the highest consumption of wine and milk, in India?

Q.Untouchability is eradicated through :
(1)Constitutional amendments.
(2)By forgetting
(3)Direction principle
(4)None of these

Q.Reservation in constitution is given on the basis of :
(1)Religion and language
(2)Religion only
(3)Language only
(4)Region only.

Q.What does "RYODAWRI" system mean?

Q."Rural Development" comes under which ministry?

Q.In which country 800 people died when they were trying to steal fuel oil ?..

Q.What is the scheme not related to Poverty Alleviation ?
(4)None of these

Q.What was the total area of Land Holding in 1990 in India?

Q.What is not the reason for Downgrading of Rating of Indian Economy for investors by Credit Rating Agency Moody's ?

Q.Why did few farmers recently commit suicide?

Q.Why non-institutional credit is favoured in Rural India?

Q.Who is a "Marginal Farmer"?

Q.A social worker {some DEV} (not known) who died recently was famous in the field of :

Q.Main area of activity of rural population on primary sector, other than farmers is :

Q.Timing of Rabi crop :

Q.Why was Ex-president Shri Venkataraman in the news?

Q.Where is the headquarter of FAO?

Q.Karnataka has taken decision to build dam over which river, which has annoyed Goa?

Q.Which state has completely privatised electricity?

Q.How many villages are there in India ?

Q.What do you mean by rural development ?

Q.First Flower Seed Depository is in which state ?

Q.Question on Dahej Pratha.

.......... and many more questions.

General Suggestions :

These questions on GK require a sincere and consistent reading of Rural issues. Some suggested readings are : "Indian Economy" by Rudra Dutt, Manorama Year Book, "Problems in Indian Agriculture"...etc.


Overall level of the test : Above average (not simple)

Very difficult to give expected cutoffs in different sections but a bare minimum 140-160 questions ought to go right. Also, assuming a negative marking of 25% and 1 mark per right answer, a net score of 110+ will stand you in good stead.

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